Submitted: 06 Mar 2021
Accepted: 29 May 2021
ePublished: 28 Jun 2021
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Dis Diagn. 2021;10(2): 70-74.
doi: 10.34172/ddj.2021.14
  Abstract View: 102
  PDF Download: 67

Original Article

Assessment of Thyroid Cancer Risk After Cervical Computed Tomography: The Impact of Bismuth Shielding

Hamid Ghaznavi 1* ORCID logo, Zeinab Momeni 2 ORCID logo, Sadegh Ghaderi 3 ORCID logo

1 Department of Radiology, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
2 Department of Medical Physics and Engineering , Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
3 Department of Neurosciences and Addiction Studies, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
*Correspondence to Hamid Ghaznavi, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran. Tel: +989188835030, Email: hamid.ghaznavi@ muk.ac.ir


Background: Computed tomography (CT) is vastly applied in X-ray procedures because of its high quality in detecting the anatomical structures of the body. However, it leads to an increase in patient dose, resulting in carcinogenesis. In the head and neck CT, the thyroid is the most important at-risk organ. The aim of this study was to estimate thyroid cancer risk in cervical CT with and without a bismuth shield.

Materials and Methods: After obtaining permission from the authors, data related to the thyroid dose of patients undergoing cervical CT in the study by Santos et al (2019) were used, and then thyroid cancer risk was calculated for different ages at exposure in male and female patients using the biological effects of the ionizing radiation (BEIR) VII model.

Results: Using bismuth shielding reduced thyroid dose by 37% and 39% in male and female phantoms, respectively. Thyroid cancer estimation demonstrated that the risk was nearly two-fold in females compared to males. Finally, bismuth shielding reduced 40% of cancer risk, and it decreased in both genders by increasing age at exposure.

Conclusion: According to our findings, excess relative risk (ERR) up to 0.06% was associated with cervical CT. Although ERR amounts were low, the effect of radiation on thyroid cancer risk should not be neglected. Accordingly, it is suggested that future trials use bismuth shielding to reduce thyroid cancer risk.

Keywords: Thyroid cancer risk, Cervical CT, Bismuth shielding, BEIR VII model
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