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Submitted: 19 Jun 2021
Accepted: 29 Sep 2021
ePublished: 30 Dec 2021
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Dis Diagn. 2021;10(4): 169-176.
doi: 10.34172/ddj.2021.30
  Abstract View: 43
  PDF Download: 32

Review Article

A Review of the Prevalence and Diagnostic Points of Cryptosporidium Species in Immunocompromised and Healthy Human Samples in Iran

Soudabeh Etemadi 1,2* ORCID logo, Omid Raiesi 3 ORCID logo, Muhammad I. Getso 4 ORCID logo, Vahid Raissi 5 ORCID logo, Hosnie Hoseini 6 ORCID logo

1 Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.
2 Infectious Disease and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Research Institute of Cellular and Molecular Sciences in Infectious Diseases, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.
3 Department of Parasitology, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran.
4 Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University Kano, PMB 3011 Kano, Nigeria.
5 Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
6 Department of Laboratory Sciences, Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan, Iran.
*Correspondence to Soudabeh Eetemadi, Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran. Tel: 054-33438487 Email: ssetemadi@gmail. com

Abstract

Cryptosporidium species are important intestinal pathogens with widespread distribution in humans and other hosts. Whereas the parasite causes acute and self-limiting gastroenteritis in people with healthy immune systems, many reports on this infection around the world are limited to people with defective or suppressed immune systems who suffer from a persistent and deadly infection. Using laboratory-serological and molecular methods for the detection of Cryptosporidium species in immunocompromised and healthy human samples, recent studies in Iran indicated that the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in different samples varied between 0 to 14%. The samples in Iranian studies included human fecal and diarrheic samples from diarrheic children, patients with gastroenteritis, immunocompromised individuals, and people in contact with livestock. Furthermore, some species were reported based on molecular studies including Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis. Some studies have also reported Cryptosporidium meleagridis. In this review study, data were collected regarding the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in high-risk individuals such as children and immunocompromised individuals. The results revealed that the higher prevalence of C. parvum in Iranian studies in the last 10 years may be attributed to the transmission of infection from animal sources.
Keywords: Cryptosporidium species, Health human samples, Immunocompromised individual, Diarrheic children, Iran

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