Submitted: 31 Aug 2020
Revision: 09 Sep 2020
Accepted: 09 Sep 2020
ePublished: 30 Sep 2020
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Int Electron J Med. 2020;9(3): 121-123.
doi: 10.34172/iejm.2020.22
  Abstract View: 63
  PDF Download: 56

Original Article

Effective Dose Calculation for Patients Undergoing X-ray Examinations in Erbil Hospitals

Ilham Khalid Ibrahim 1 ORCID logo, Fatiheea Fatihalla Hassan 1* ORCID logo, Nashwan Karkhi Abdulkareem 1 ORCID logo

1 Department of Basic Sciences, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region-Iraq.
*Correspondence to Fatiheea Fatihalla Hassan, Department of Basic Sciences- Biophysics Unit, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region-Iraq. Tel: +964-7503148390, Email: , or fatehiya64@yahoo.com fatiheea.fatihalla@ hmu.edu.krd


Background: In conventional X-ray examinations, patients are exposed to radiation. Biological hazards from radiation of any source is expressed as effective dose, and is measured in millisieverts (mSv). The purpose of this study was to assess and calculate the effective dose values for patients undergoing posteroanterior (PA) chest, abdomen, anteroposterior (AP) pelvis, and cervical spine X-ray examinations in general hospitals of Erbil city and compare it with those of other studies.

Materials and Methods: A total of 255 patients between 20-70 years of age participated in this work (85 per hospital). The patients’ characteristics included age, sex, examination type, projection posture, and exposure parameters captured by NOMEX Multimeter including tube potential and current-time product. The mean effective doses (EDs) of four different examinations (chest (PA), pelvis (AP), abdomen, and cervical spine) were measured using the Monte Carlo method and compared with those of other studies.

Results: The mean EDs were calculated 1.04, 2.01, 3.12, and 3.22 mSv for chest (PA), pelvis (AP), abdomen, and cervical spine, respectively. All ED values in this study were higher than those of published studies. The aim of the study was to increase the awareness of the radiographer and patients undergoing conventional X-ray diagnostic radiology on the risk of ionizing radiation for radiological protection in Erbil hospitals.

Conclusion: The mean EDs were increased by an increase in the age; this may increase the probability of cancer incidence and heritable diseases. Hence, dose optimization is required due to more probable incidence of cancer when compared to other studies.

Keywords: Monte Carlo method, Effective dose, X-ray
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