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Submitted: 09 Sep 2020
Accepted: 12 Oct 2020
ePublished: 30 Dec 2020
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  Abstract View: 45

Review Article

A Literature Review on the Epidemiology, Virology, Clinical Characteristics, Prevention and Treatment of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)

Vahid Ranaei 1 ORCID logo, Zahra Pilevar 2 ORCID logo, Laleh Hassani 3,4 ORCID logo, Abdol Hussain Madani 5* ORCID logo

1 Student Research Committee, Faculty of Public Health, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
2 Department of Food Sciences & Technology Department, National Nutrition & Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3 Health Faculty, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
4 Mother and Child Welfare Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
5 Research Center for Social Determinants on Health Promotion, School of Health, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

Abstract

The World Health Organization (WHO) has issued a public health emergency of international
concern for the outbreak of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). This study aimed to review the
findings of recent published literature to provide researchers with information regarding the current
biggest global health threat of 2019-nCoV pandemic on the basis of previous coronaviruses. To
do so, this study attempted to review the available online data on biological nature of 2019-nCoV
compared to previous coronaviruses. Additionally, the epidemiology, susceptible population,
transmission routes, clinical characteristics, and medications for 2019-nCoV were reviewed. In
this article, after an introduction to the subject and characterization of coronavirus, we considered
the experiences and lessons learned from previous outbreaks to review the epidemiology, clinical
characteristics, prevention, and medications of 2019-nCov disease. There are three main routes
for transmission of 2019-nCoV including close contact to infected cases, aerosol, and touch
transmissions. This newfound virus can be transmitted from asymptomatic patients or from infected
cases with symptoms ranging from a flu-like to severe respiratory syndrome. Currently, there are
no 100% approved therapeutic drugs and vaccination for this disease. In conclusion, given that
development of vaccine for 2019-nCoV requires close collaboration of vaccine manufacturers and biotechnology companies, which takes a long period for production of vaccine, implementation of prevention and controlling measures based on the current available information about the subject is the best measure to control the spread of the virus.
Keywords: 2019-nCoV, COVID-19, Pandemic, Epidemiology, Prevention, Clinical characteristics, Treatment, Coronavirus, Transmission routes..
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